A Web-Based Approach to Measure Skill Mismatches and Skills Profiles for a Developing Country: The Case of Colombia

Autor:

Jeisson Arley Cárdenas Rubio

  • Categoría: Economía y Finanzas , Libros    
  • Año de edición: 2020
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Varios estudios interdisciplinarios destacan la información imperfecta como una posible explicación del desajuste de habilidades, lo que a su vez tiene implicaciones para las tasas de desempleo e informalidad. A pesar de las fallas de información y sus consecuencias, países como Colombia (donde las tasas de informalidad y desempleo son altas) carecen de un sistema de información del mercado laboral adecuado para identificar los desajustes de habilidades y los requisitos de habilidades de los empleadores. Una de las razones de esta ausencia es el costo de recopilar datos sobre el mercado laboral. Recientemente, el uso potencial de portales de empleo en línea como fuente de información sobre el mercado laboral ha atraído la atención de investigadores y legisladores, ya que estos portales pueden proporcionar una recopilación de datos rápida y de costo relativamente bajo. Como tal, estos portales podrían ser útiles para Colombia. Sin embargo, continúan los debates sobre la eficacia de este uso, particularmente en lo que respecta a la solidez de los datos recopilados. Este libro implementa un enfoque novedoso de métodos mixtos (como web scraping, minería de texto, aprendizaje automático, etc.) para investigar hasta qué punto se puede desarrollar un modelo basado en la web de desajustes de habilidades para Colombia. La principal contribución de este libro es demostrar que, con las técnicas adecuadas, los portales de empleo pueden ser una fuente sólida de información sobre el mercado laboral. Al hacerlo, también contribuye al conocimiento actual al desarrollar un enfoque conceptual y metodológico para identificar habilidades, ocupaciones y desajustes de habilidades utilizando anuncios de empleo en línea, que de otra manera serían demasiado complejos para ser recopilados y analizados por otros medios. Al aplicar esta metodología novedosa, este estudio proporciona nuevos datos empíricos sobre el alcance y la naturaleza de los desajustes de habilidades en Colombia para un conjunto considerable de ocupaciones no agrícolas en la economía urbana y formal. Además, esta información se puede utilizar como complemento de las encuestas de hogares para monitorear la posible escasez de habilidades. Por lo tanto, los hallazgos son útiles para los encargados de formular políticas, los estadísticos y los proveedores de educación y capacitación, entre otros


Several interdisciplinary studies highlight imperfect information as a possible explanation of skill mismatches, which in turn has implications for unemployment and informality rates. Despite information failures and their consequences, countries like Colombia (where informality and unemployment rates are high) lack a proper labour market information system to identify skill mismatches and employer skill requirements. One reason for this absence is the cost of collecting labour market data. Recently, the potential use of online job portals as a source of labour market information has gained the attention of researchers and policymakers, since these portals can provide quick and relatively low-cost data collection. As such, these portals could be of use for Colombia. However, debates continue about the efficacy of this use, particularly concerning the robustness of the collected data. This book implements a novel mixed-methods approach (such as web scraping, text mining, machine learning, etc.) to investigate to what extent a web-based model of skill mismatches can be developed for Colombia. The main contribution of this book is demonstrating that, with the proper techniques, job portals can be a robust source of labour market information. In doing so, it also contributes to current knowledge by developing a conceptual and methodological approach to identify skills, occupations, and skill mismatches using online job advertisements, which would otherwise be too complex to be collected and analysed via other means. By applying this novel methodology, this study provides new empirical data on the extent and nature of skill mismatches in Colombia for a considerable set of non-agricultural occupations in the urban and formal economy. Moreover, this information can be used as a complement to household surveys to monitor potential skill shortages. Thus, the findings are useful for policymakers, statisticians, and education and training providers, among others.


                    product.attributes1                
Acceso Abierto
Acceso Abierto
Año de Edición (PDF)2020
eISBN (PDF) 9789587845464
Libro Impreso
Libro Impreso
Año de Edición 2020
ISBN 9789587845440
Sku372417
                    table.content.tab1                

List of Figures ....................................................................................... xv

List of Tables ......................................................................................... xviii

Acronyms and Abbreviations .............................................................. xx

1. Introduction ................................................................................. 2

2. The Labour Market and Skill Mismatches ................................ 14

2.1. Introduction ............................................................................................... 15

2.2. Basic definitions ....................................................................................... 16

2.2.1. Labour supply  ............................................................................. 16

2.2.2. Labour demand ............................................................................ 17

2.2.3. Informal economy ....................................................................... 18

2.2.4. Skills  ............................................................................................... 23

2.3.  How the labour market works under perfect competition ......... 29

2.3.1. Labour demand ............................................................................ 29

2.3.2.  Labour supply ............................................................................... 30

2.3.3.  Market equilibrium ...................................................................... 31

2.4.  Market imperfections and segmentation .......................................... 33

2.4.1.  Segmentation ............................................................................... 33

2.4.2.  Imperfect market information ................................................. 35

2.5.  Conclusion  ................................................................................................. 41

3. The Colombian Context ............................................................. 44

3.1. Introduction ............................................................................................... 45

3.2. The characteristics of the Colombian labour market  .................. 46

3.2.1. Labour supply  ............................................................................. 46

3.2.2. Labour demand ............................................................................ 52

3.3. Skill mismatches in Colombia ............................................................... 54

3.4. An international example of skill mismatch measures ................. 57

3.5. Lack of accurate information to develop  well-orientated public policies  ........................................................... 59

3.6. Conclusion  ................................................................................................. 64

4. The Information Problem: Big Data  as a Solution for Labour Market Analysis................................ 66

4.1. Introduction ............................................................................................... 67

4.2. A definition of Big Data ......................................................................... 68

4.3. Big Data on the labour market  ........................................................... 71

4.3.1. Labour supply  ............................................................................. 71

4.3.2. Labour demand ............................................................................ 74

4.4. Potential uses of information from job portals  to tackle skill shortages ......................................................................... 81

4.4.1. Estimating vacancy levels ......................................................... 81

4.4.2. Identifying skills and other job requirements  .................... 82

4.4.3. Recognising new occupations or skills  ................................ 83

4.4.4. Updating occupation classifications  .................................... 83

4.5. Big Data limitations and caveats ......................................................... 84

4.5.1. Data quality ................................................................................... 85

4.5.2. Job postings are not necessarily real jobs  ......................... 87

4.5.3. Data representativeness  .......................................................... 88

4.5.4. Limited internet penetration rates ......................................... 90

4.5.5. Data privacy .................................................................................. 91

4.6. Big Data in the Colombian context  ................................................... 92

4.7. Conclusion .................................................................................................. 95

5. Methodology ............................................................................... 98

5.1. Introduction ............................................................................................... 99

5.2. Measurement of the labour demand: Job vacancies  ................... 100

5.3. Selecting the most important vacancy websites in the country  ........................................................................................... 106

5.4. Web scraping  ........................................................................................... 110

5.5. The organisation and homogenisation of information  ................ 112

5.5.1. Education, experience, localisation, among other job characteristics ........................................................... 113

5.5.2. Wages ............................................................................................. 113

5.5.3. Company classification .............................................................. 114

5.6. Conclusion .................................................................................................. 116

6. Extracting More Value from Job Vacancy Information (Methodology Part 2) ........................................... 118

6.1. Introduction ............................................................................................... 119

6.2. Identifying skills  ...................................................................................... 121

6.3. Identifying new or specific skills  ........................................................ 124

6.4. Classifying vacancies into occupations  ........................................... 126

6.4.1. Manual coding  ............................................................................. 130

6.4.2. Cleaning.......................................................................................... 130

6.4.3. Cascot ............................................................................................. 131

6.4.4. Revisiting manual coding (again)  ......................................... 133

6.4.5. Adaptation of Cascot according  to Colombian occupational titles  .......................................... 133

6.4.6. The English version of Cascot  ................................................ 135

6.4.7. Machine learning.......................................................................... 136

6.5. Deduplication  ........................................................................................... 140

6.6. Imputing missing values  ....................................................................... 141

6.6.1. Imputing educational requirements ...................................... 141

6.6.2. Imputing the wage variable ..................................................... 143

6.7. Vacancy data structure .............................................................................. 144

6.8. Conclusion ..................................................................................................... 147

7. Descriptive Analysis of the Vacancy Database ...................... 150

7.1. Introduction ............................................................................................... 151

7.2. Vacancy database composition .......................................................... 152

7.3. Geographical distribution of vacancies and number of jobs ..... 153

7.4. Labour demand for skills  ...................................................................... 157

7.4.1. Educational requirements  ....................................................... 158

7.4.2. Occupational structure .............................................................. 159

7.4.3. New or specific job titles .......................................................... 164

7.4.4. The most in-demand skills (ESCO classifications) ............ 167

7.4.5. New or specific skills demanded  in the Colombian labour market ............................................. 171

7.4.6. Experience requirements .......................................................... 173

7.5. Demand by sector.................................................................................... 174

7.6. Trends in the labour demand  .............................................................. 176

7.7. Wages  ......................................................................................................... 185

7.8. Other characteristics of the vacancy database .............................. 187

7.9. Conclusion  ................................................................................................. 188

8. Internal and External Validity of the Vacancy Database ...... 192

8.1. Introduction  .............................................................................................. 193

8.2. Internal validity ......................................................................................... 195

8.2.1. Wage distribution by groups ................................................... 195

8.2.2. Vacancy distribution by groups .............................................. 198

8.3. External validity  ....................................................................................... 203

8.3.1. Data representativeness: Vacancy versus household survey information  ...... 207

8.3.2. Time series comparison ............................................................ 218

8.4. Conclusion .................................................................................................. 233

9. Possible Uses of Labour Demand and Supply Information to Reduce Skill Mismatches ................................. 236

9.1. Introduction  .............................................................................................. 237

9.2. Labour market description ................................................................... 239

9.2.1. Colombian labour force distribution  by occupational groups ............................. 240

9.2.2. Unemployment and informality rates  .................................. 243

9.2.3. Trends in the labour market  .................................................... 251

9.3. Measuring possible skill mismatches (macro-indicators) ........... 255

9.3.1. Beveridge curve (indicators of imbalance) ......................... 257

9.3.2. Volume-based indicators: Employment, unemployment, and vacancy growth  ...... 264

9.3.3. Price-based indicators: Wages ................................................ 272

9.3.4. Thresholds ..................................................................................... 279

9.3.5. Skill shortages in the Colombian labour market................ 283

9.4. Detailed information about occupations and skill matching  .... 285

9.4.1. Skills ................................................................................................. 285

9.4.2. Skill trends ..................................................................................... 294

9.5. Conclusions ................................................................................................ 295

10. Conclusions and Implications ................................................... 298

10.1. Introduction  .............................................................................................. 299

10.2. Conceptual contributions ...................................................................... 302

10.3. Contributions to methodology ............................................................ 304

10.4. Empirical contributions .......................................................................... 309

10.5. Implications for practice and policy .................................................. 313

10.5.1. For national statistics offices ................................................... 313

10.5.2. For policymakers  ........................................................................ 315

10.5.3. For education and training providers  .................................. 318

10.5.4. For career advisers  .................................................................... 319

10.6. Limitations ................................................................................................. 320

10.7. Further research  ...................................................................................... 322

10.7.1. Improving machine learning and text mining algorithms  ................... 322

10.7.2. New job titles and potential new occupations ................... 323

10.7.3. International comparison .......................................................... 324

10.8. Conclusions ................................................................................................ 325

References ............................................................................................. 328

 

                    author.information.tab1                
Jeisson Arley Cárdenas Rubio

Is a labour economist who works at the Institute for Employment Research in the United Kingdom. He has worked as a consultant for the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, the National Administrative Department of Statistics, the Ministry of Labour in Colombia, among other institutions. He has a PhD in Employment Research from the University of Warwick. His research has focused on measuring the possible effects of Coronavirus in the Colombian labour market, analysing housing prices in Colombia with internet data, investigating diesel market integration in France, and discussing the issue of labour demand analysis in Colombia. He is research fellow of Alianza EFI.


                    author.classification.tab1                
THEMA
THEMA
KJ > Economía, finanzas, empresa y gestión > Empresa y gestión
BISAC
BISAC
BUS000000 > NEGOCIOS ECONÓMICOS > General
                    information.custom.rosario.tab1